As rock music emerged and evolved during the post-war era, session musicians played a critical role in shaping the sound, style, and success of many iconic records and artists.
Here are some of the key ways in which session musicians contributed to the rise of rock music:
Versatility: Masters of Adaptation in the Studio
Session musicians are known for their incredible adaptability, which allows them to change to various styles and genres in the recording studio. This makes them highly sought-after professionals, as they contribute creatively to a wide range of projects and help develop the sound of rock music.
Here are some examples of early popular music session musicians who showcased their versatility:
- Carol Kaye: As one of the most prolific session musicians, Carol Kaye played bass guitar on numerous recordings spanning a variety of genres, including rock, pop, jazz, and R&B. She contributed to iconic tracks by The Beach Boys, The Monkees, and Frank Zappa, among others, showcasing her ability to adapt to different styles.
- Steve Gadd: A highly skilled drummer, Steve Gadd played with a diverse array of artists, such as Eric Clapton, Paul Simon, and Steely Dan. Gadd's versatility enabled him to switch effortlessly between rock, jazz, and pop, making him an invaluable asset in the studio.
- Larry Carlton: As a talented guitarist, Larry Carlton lent his skills to numerous projects in rock, pop, jazz, and blues. His work with artists like Steely Dan, Joni Mitchell, and The Crusaders demonstrated his ability to adapt his playing style to suit the needs of various genres and artists.
- Leon Russell: A pianist, singer, and songwriter, Leon Russell showcased his versatility by contributing to recordings by artists like Joe Cocker, The Rolling Stones, and The Beach Boys. His ability to blend rock, blues, country, and gospel elements made him an important collaborator in the studio.
Consistency: The Professional Touch in Recording Sessions
Here are some examples of early session musicians who exemplified consistency in their work:
- Hal Blaine: As one of the most recorded drummers in history, Hal Blaine was known for his reliable and impeccable performances. As a member of the legendary Wrecking Crew, he played on countless hits by artists such as Elvis Presley, The Ronettes, and Simon & Garfunkel, providing a solid rhythmic foundation for these iconic recordings.
- Earl Palmer: Another highly respected drummer, Earl Palmer played on numerous rock, R&B, and jazz recordings, showcasing his consistency and professionalism. His work with artists like Little Richard, Fats Domino, and The Beach Boys contributed to the success of many classic songs.
- Tommy Tedesco: As a prolific guitarist, Tommy Tedesco was renowned for his consistency and efficiency in the studio. He played on countless recordings across various genres, working with artists like The Beach Boys, The Supremes, and Frank Sinatra. Tedesco's ability to deliver high-quality performances quickly made him a favourite among producers and artists.
- Waddy Wachtel: A versatile and consistent guitarist, Waddy Wachtel has played on numerous hit records by artists such as Linda Ronstadt, Warren Zevon, and Stevie Nicks. His reliable performances and adaptability have made him an in-demand session musician for decades.
Collaboration: Cross-Pollination of Ideas and Influences
Session musicians often collaborate with multiple artists and bands, resulting in the exchange of ideas and influences across different projects. This cross-pollination of musical styles and techniques contributes to the development and diversification of rock music, making collaboration a critical aspect of the genre's growth.
Here are some examples of early session musicians who exemplified the collaborative spirit:
- Bernard Purdie: A legendary drummer, Bernard Purdie worked with a wide range of artists, from rock icons like Aretha Franklin and Steely Dan to jazz greats like Miles Davis and Dizzy Gillespie. His collaborations allowed him to bring a unique blend of styles to each project, enriching the sound and character of the music.
- Jim Keltner: A highly respected drummer, Jim Keltner has collaborated with an impressive array of rock, pop, and folk artists, including Bob Dylan, George Harrison, and John Lennon. His diverse collaborations allowed him to share his expertise and creative insights across different projects, influencing the sound of countless recordings.
- Leland Sklar: As a bassist, Leland Sklar has worked with a variety of artists, from rock legends like James Taylor and Phil Collins to country stars like Reba McEntire and Vince Gill. His ability to collaborate effectively with artists from different genres has helped shape the sound of numerous hit songs.
- Jeff Porcaro: A talented drummer and founding member of Toto, Jeff Porcaro also had a prolific career as a session musician. He collaborated with various artists, including Michael Jackson, Steely Dan, and Boz Scaggs, sharing his rhythmic expertise and creative ideas across various projects.
Filling in the Gaps: Enhancing Band Line-ups and Performances
Session musicians play a crucial role in filling in the gaps for bands that lack a full line-up or have members who are not skilled enough to record in a studio setting. Their contributions ensure that the final recordings meet industry standards and are commercially viable, some example in the early days of rock are:
- Jimmy Page: Before forming Led Zeppelin, Jimmy Page was a renowned session guitarist who often filled in for bands that needed an extra boost of talent. He contributed to recordings by The Kinks, The Who, and The Rolling Stones, among others, providing his exceptional guitar skills to enhance their music.
- Nicky Hopkins: A skilled pianist, Nicky Hopkins worked with a vast array of artists, including The Beatles, Rolling Stones, and The Kinks. His keyboard work filled in the gaps for bands that required an additional layer of sound, enriching their recordings and helping to create iconic tracks.
- David Hood: As a bassist, David Hood was part of the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section, a group of session musicians who played on numerous R&B and rock recordings. He contributed his bass skills to recordings by artists such as Aretha Franklin, Paul Simon, and The Staple Singers, filling in the gaps and providing a solid foundation for their music.
- Bobby Keys: A talented saxophonist, Bobby Keys played on many iconic rock recordings, working with artists like The Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, and George Harrison. His saxophone skills added depth and character to the music, filling in the gaps and enhancing the overall sound.
Anonymity: The Unsung Contributors Behind the Stars
In many cases, session musicians remain uncredited for their work, allowing the spotlight to remain on the lead artists. This enables the industry to focus on promoting the "star" while benefiting from the skills and talent of these behind-the-scenes contributors: some examples of session musicians who often worked anonymously:
- The Funk Brothers: As the in-house band for Motown Records, The Funk Brothers played on countless hits by artists such as Marvin Gaye, The Supremes, and The Temptations. Despite their immense contribution to the Motown sound, their work often went uncredited, and their individual identities remained largely unknown to the public.
- The Wrecking Crew: This group of talented session musicians played on numerous hit records throughout the 1960s and 1970s, working with artists like The Beach Boys, The Mamas & The Papas, and Frank Sinatra. Despite their significant contributions, they frequently remained anonymous, with the spotlight staying on the lead artists.
- Clem Cattini: A highly skilled drummer, Clem Cattini played on over 40 UK number one hits, working with artists such as The Kinks, T. Rex, and Dusty Springfield. Despite his vast body of work, Cattini's name remained relatively unknown to the public, as he frequently went uncredited on the recordings he contributed to.
- The Section: A collective of studio musicians, The Section worked with a variety of artists like James Taylor, Carole King, and Jackson Browne. Although they played on numerous successful records, their contributions often went unnoticed, as they remained in the background, allowing the spotlight to stay on the main artists.
- Influence on other musicians: The work of session musicians regularly served as a source of inspiration for other artists, who would then incorporate new ideas and techniques into their own music. This further contributed to the growth and evolution of rock music.
Foundation for Future Success: From Session Work to Stardom
Many successful artists begin their careers as session musicians, leveraging their experience and connections to launch their own careers in the music industry. This foundation in session work gives them valuable skills and insights that contribute to their future success: some examples of artists who transitioned from session work to stardom:
- Eric Clapton: Before achieving fame with bands like Cream and Derek and the Dominos, Clapton worked as a session guitarist. He contributed to recordings by The Yardbirds, The Beatles, and Aretha Franklin, among others. His experience as a session musician helped him develop his unique style and build connections in the industry, ultimately leading to his successful solo career.
- Leon Russell: As previously mentioned, Leon Russell was a sought-after session musician, working with artists like Joe Cocker and The Rolling Stones. His session work laid the foundation for his own successful career as a singer, songwriter, and bandleader, allowing him to leverage his experience and connections to achieve lasting success.
- Rick Wakeman: Before joining the progressive rock band Yes, Rick Wakeman was a session keyboardist, working with artists such as David Bowie, T. Rex, and Elton John. His experience in the studio not only honed his technical skills, but also provided valuable insights into songwriting and arrangement, which contributed to his success with Yes and as a solo artist.
- Phil Collins: Prior to joining Genesis and later becoming a successful solo artist, Phil Collins worked as a session drummer for various artists. His session work helped him develop his signature drumming style and provided him with the experience and connections necessary to launch his career as a singer, drummer, and songwriter.
This blog post dipped into the essential role of session musicians in the development and growth of rock music. Their versatility, consistency, and professionalism were crucial in shaping the sound and success of countless hit songs. Collaboration among session musicians fostered the exchange of ideas and influences, leading to a more dynamic musical landscape. Despite often working anonymously, many used their session experience as a foundation for future success in the music industry.
As the industry evolves, session musicians continue to play a vital role in shaping the sound of rock music and other genres, with their influence expected to persist for generations to come.